The future of sex in elite sport
The Biology of Sex and Sport
In historical terms, modern, codified sport was invented in Britain by men, for men and thus in their own interests. Games therefore centred on Victorian notions of athletic manliness and associated ideals of masculinity. This involved physical and biological appearance i. Reflecting the wider constraints of a patriarchal society, women were often disallowed from competing in several sports, or constrained from taking part in particular events within them. Women were, however, extremely important to Olympic national teams; after all, a medal for a female athlete counted the same towards the medal tally as that for a male athlete. So, in very crude terms, even though women were too often trivialised as athletes of calibre, they very much counted on the patriotic scoreboard.
Effect of Sex and Sporting Discipline on LV Adaptation to Exercise
Objectives: This study sought to investigate the effect of different types of exercise on left ventricular LV geometry in a large group of female and male athletes. Background: Studies assessing cardiac adaptation in female and male athletes indicate that female athletes reveal smaller increases in LV wall thickness and cavity size compared with male athletes. However, data on sex-specific changes in LV geometry in athletes are scarce. Results: Athletes were engaged in 40 different sporting disciplines with similar participation rates with respect to the type of exercise between females and males.